Ten things to know about Terracotta Warriors


Ten things to know about Terracotta Warriors

NO.1 When were Terracotta Warriors built?

In 221 B.C., Emperor Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty established the first centralized feudal dynasty in China. After his death, he was buried at the northern foot of Lishan Hill in the east of Lintong County. Qin terracotta warriors have guarded the mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang for 2229 to 2240 years.
Terracotta Warriors

Terracotta Warriors

NO.2 Why did the mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang and the terracotta warriors build in Lingtong County?

The terracotta warriors pit is one part of the funerary pits. The choose of location at the north foot of Lishan Mountain to buried with his ancestors together, as there was no sufficient space in the west foot of the Lishan mountain for Qin shi Huang to build the mausoleum in such a large scale. What is more, the north foot of Lishan Mountain has a good position, which leads to the good preservation of Qin Shi Huang mausoleum. The mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang locates in the area where alluvial fan formed, enabling the Qin Shi Huang mausoleum to be preserved well with good protection measures taken during the construction periods.
Lintong

Lintong

NO.3 The reason why the terracotta warriors preserved well

Terracotta warriors were made with the combination of pottery modeling and sculpturing. The calcination temperature ranges from 950℃ to 1050℃ with 2 to 6 cm surface thickness. Besides the terracotta warriors, archaeologists also found a great number of bronze weapons. Though some wood weapons fail to be preserved, metal weapons are preserved well. Researchers found that metal weapons contain an element of chromium compound, which can be approved by the well-preserved swords.
Sword

Sword

NO.4 Types of terracotta warriors

These discovered terracotta warriors are divided into many different types by archaeologists, such as infantry warriors, cavalry warriors, and chariot warriors. Infantry warriors can be divided into military infantry warriors and general infantry warriors. Military infantry warriors can be classified into senior one, intermediate one and junior one. General infantry warriors can be classified into heavy infantry warriors and light infantry warriors.
The Terracotta Warriors

The Terracotta Warriors

NO.5 Weight of Terracotta Warriors

There are many types of terracotta warriors in different shapes. The average weight of each terracotta is about 180kg. The heaviest is the terracotta horse with more than 300 kg. The heaviest terracotta warriors are senior military infantry warriors with 250 kg, and the lightest are kneeling archery warriors with 100 kg.
Tao Ma

Tao Ma

NO.6 Value of Terracotta Warriors

Qin Shi Huang established the first centralized state of China and so became the first emperor of the entire country. Replicating the once invincible troops of the Qin Dynasty, the Terracotta Army was made with the glorious mission of protecting this great emperor in the underworld. He commanded the construction of the grand Terracotta Army to guard him in his afterlife after he ascended the throne. According to the Historical Records, the mausoleum was similar to the Palace he lived in terms of the scenery, landscape, layouts and construction structures. The terracotta warriors are the underground troops to show the divine power of Emperor Qin Shi Huang.
The terracotta warriors are priceless treasures. The UNESCO listed it into the world culture heritage in 1987. It is a precious culture heritage shared by all people with great historical, scientific and art values.
Underground Imperial Mausoleu

Underground Imperial Mausoleu

NO.7 Differences between terracotta warriors and western soldiers in the same period

Firstly, the purpose of operation is different. Qin army aimed to kill enemies while western armies aims to smash the enemies. Secondly, the army structure is different. Qin army combined armies with several battle fields including infantry warriors, cavalry warriors, and chariot warriors. Western army took “wheel wars” to consume the energy of the enemies. Thirdly, the operation way is different. Qin used bows and crossbows to fight in long distance, and spears, halberds and swords to fight in short distance. In western countries, they used shields and spears to fight in short distance.
Combination of forces

Combination of forces

NO.8 Characters on terracotta warriors

Archaeologists have found NO.1, NO.2 and NO.3 pits in the east side of Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum since 1974. There are more than 8000 warriors and horses. During the process of discovery, archaeologists found there are characters carved on the warriors and horses. Characters were carved under arms or on the bottom of the clothes, chests, arms or belly. They were also carved on the hips, neck, belly or tail of horses. The characters were in small seal style or official script. The characters showed the name of places or people.
Characters

Characters

NO.9 No female terracotta warriors

According to the Historical Records for Emperor Qin Shi Huang, armies in Qin Dynasty were males. On the basis of the result, the terracotta warriors are in the shape of strong and energetic males, and there is no female terracotta warrior. To view from the arrangement, there is a slight possibility to find female terracotta warriors in the future.
Man

Man

NO. 10The Figures Used to be Colorful

The figures always appear as grey in color. About 2000 years ago, they were originally painted with black hair, beard, and eyebrows like real persons. Their uniforms were also painted in bright colors, including scarlet, green, black, and purple. The moist environment underground was more suited to the preservation of the paint. Once the figures were excavated, the change of the humidity led to more cracks and warping on the surface, and is the main factor resulting in the fading of the colors. Even so, there are color paintings remained for us to carry out protection project for these color paintings. The color of terracotta warriors reflects the color of battle suits in Qin Dynasty to some degree.
Painted robes

Painted robes